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Phonogram List

Phonograms are at the core of Logic of English curriculum. The following chart shows all 74 of the basic phonograms taught in Logic of English Essentials and Foundations. Click on a phonogram to hear all its sounds and see sample words.
A a ă-ā-ä
Sample Words
  • mat,
  • table,
  • father
ai ā Two letter /ā/ that may not be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • laid
ay ā Two letter /ā/ that may be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • play
au ä Two letter /ä/ that may not be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • author
aw ä Two letter /ä/ that may be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • saw
augh ä-ăf Used only at the end of a base word or before a T.
Sample Words
  • taught
  • laugh
ar är
Sample Words
  • car
B b b
Sample Words
  • bat
bu b Two letter /b/.
Sample Words
  • buy
C c k-s
Sample Words
  • cat
  • cent
ch ch-k-sh
Sample Words
  • child
  • school
  • chef
ci sh Short /sh/ used only at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.
Sample Words
  • spacious
E e ĕ-ē
Sample Words
  • tent
  • be
ea ē-ĕ-ā
Sample Words
  • eat
  • bread
  • steak
ee ē Double /ē/.
Sample Words
  • tree
ei ā-ē-ī May not be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • their
  • protein
  • feisty
eigh ā-ī Used only at the end of a base word or before a T.
Sample Words
  • eight
  • height
cei
Sample Words
  • receive
ear er The /er/ of search.
Sample Words
  • search
ck k Two letter /k/ used only after a single, short vowel.
Sample Words
  • back
D d d
Sample Words
  • dad
dge j Hard /J/ used only after a single, short vowel.
Sample Words
  • edge
F f f
Sample Words
  • foot
G g g-j
Sample Words
  • big
  • gym
ew oo-ū May be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • flew
  • few
ey ā-ē May be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • they
  • key
I i ĭ-ī-ē-y
Sample Words
  • it
  • ivy
  • stadium
  • onion
ie ē The /ē/ of field.
Sample Words
  • field
igh ī Three letter /ī/ used only at the end of a base word or before a T.
Sample Words
  • night
ed ĕd-d-t Past tense ending.
Sample Words
  • traded
  • pulled
  • picked
er er The /er/ of her.
Sample Words
  • her
gn n Two letter /n/ used at the beginning or the end of a base word.
Sample Words
  • sign
gu g-gw
Sample Words
  • guide
  • language
H h h
Sample Words
  • hat
J j j
Sample Words
  • job
K k k
Sample Words
  • kit
O o ŏ-ō-oo
Sample Words
  • on
  • go
  • do
oa ō Two letter /ō/ that may not be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • coat
oe ō-oo May be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • toe
  • shoe
oi oi May not be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • boil
oy oi May be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • boy
ough ŏ-ō-oo-ow-ŭf-ŏf Used only at the end of a base word or before a T.
Sample Words
  • thought
  • though
  • through
  • bough
  • rough
  • trough
ir er The /er/ of bird.
Sample Words
  • bird
kn n Two letter /n/ used only at the beginning of a base word.
Sample Words
  • know
L l l
Sample Words
  • lamp
M m m
Sample Words
  • me
N n n
Sample Words
  • nut
ng n
Sample Words
  • sing
oo oo-ü-ō
Sample Words
  • food
  • took
  • floor
ou ow-ō-oo-ŭ May not be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • house
  • soul
  • group
  • country
ow ow-ō May be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • plow
  • snow
U u ŭ-ū-oo-ü
Sample Words
  • up
  • pupil
  • flute
  • put
ui oo Two letter /oo/ that may not be used at the end of English words.
Sample Words
  • fruit
or or
Sample Words
  • lord
P p p
Sample Words
  • pan
ph f Two letter /f/.
Sample Words
  • phone
Qu qu kw
Sample Words
  • queen
R r r
Sample Words
  • ran
S s s-z
Sample Words
  • sent
  • as
ur er The /er/ of hurt.
Sample Words
  • hurt
sh sh Used only at the beginning of a word and at the end of the syllable. Never used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one, except for the ending -ship.
Sample Words
  • she
si sh-zh Used only at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.
Sample Words
  • session
  • division
T t t
Sample Words
  • tip
tch ch Three letter /ch/ used only after a single vowel that is not long.
Sample Words
  • butcher
th th-TH
Sample Words
  • thin
  • this
wor wer
Sample Words
  • worm
ti sh Tall /sh/ used only at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.
Sample Words
  • partial
V v v
Sample Words
  • van
W w w
Sample Words
  • wall
wh wh Used only at the beginning of a base word.
Sample Words
  • whisper
wr r Two letter /r/ used only at the beginning of a base word.
Sample Words
  • write
X x ks-z
Sample Words
  • fox
  • xylophone
Y y y-ĭ-ī-ē
Sample Words
  • yard
  • gym
  • by
  • baby
Z z z
Sample Words
  • zip

Learn more!

Read about the importance of phonograms and the benefits of systematic and complete phonics instruction in our Research section.

You may also be interested in a few of the supplemental products we created to help teach phonograms:

  • Basic Phonogram Flash Cards

    Durable flashcards of all 74 basic phonograms.
    Learn more Buy Now
  • Phonograms App

    A fun, effective phonics recognition game that eliminates exceptions and provides a complete picture of the phonograms needed to read and spell!
    Learn more Phonics With Phonograms by Logic of English - Logic of English
  • Advanced Phonogram Flash Cards

    Thirty-five Advanced Phonograms Cards unlock thousands of advanced vocabulary words.
    Learn more Buy Now

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